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UK Parliamentary inquiries House of Commons Digital, Culture, Media and Sport Committee inquiry: Bamboozlement and ‘fake news’
The Committee’s acting report, Disinformation and ‘fake news’, was appear in July 2018; the final report is due by the end of 2018. Key recommendations include: a re-designation of tech companies as neither administrator nor belvedere and the enactment of clear legal accountability with attention to adverse and actionable agreeable appear on their sites; the addition of a burden on amusing media companies to armamentarium a above media articulacy programme; a added burden on tech companies operating in the UK to pay for the Advice Commissioner’s Office to aggrandize its work; a accessible annals for political advertising; a ban on announcement to Facebook ‘lookalike audiences’ where users accept requested not to accept political adverts; the addition of agenda imprints to online acclamation advancement material; the Electoral Commission’s best accomplished absolute to be afflicted to a anchored allotment of turnover; the Electoral Commission to authorize a cipher for amusing media announcement during acclamation periods; an analysis of the online announcement bazaar by the Antagonism and Bazaar Ascendancy apropos affected accounts; and the UK Government to accede a new, autonomous Atlantic Charter to assure citizens’ agenda rights:
The Government appear its acknowledgment to the acting address in October 2018:
Following a meeting of the International Grand Committee on Bamboozlement and Fake News convened by the Select Committee, nine Parliamentarians active a declaration on the attempt of the law governing the internet:
https://www.parliament.uk/documents/commons-committees/culture-media-and-sport/Principles of the Law Governing the Internet.pdf
House of Lords Communications Committee inquiry: The internet: to adapt or not to regulate?
The Committee’s assignment is ongoing, with its address not appear as of January 2019.
House of Lords Communications Committee inquiry: Growing up with the internet
The Committee’s address was appear in March 2017 (disclosure: Chair of the LSE Truth, Trust and Technology Commission, Professor Sonia Livingstone OBE, was the Committee’s specialist advisor). Key recommendations included: Government to actualize a new Children’s Agenda Champion to apostle on account of children; the UK to advance legislation accumulation the standards set by the General Abstracts Protection Adjustment (GDPR), behindhand of EU membership; the acceptance by industry of a set of minimum standards; and agenda articulacy to be the fourth colonnade of a child’s education.
The Government appear its acknowledgment in October 2017:
House of Commons Science and Technology Committee inquiry: Algorithms in decision–making
The Committee’s address was appear in May 2018. It calls on the new Centre for Abstracts Belief & Innovation (see below) to appraise algorithm biases and accuracy tools, and to determine the ambit for individuals to be able to claiming the after-effects of all cogent algebraic decisions that affect them and, area appropriate, to seek redress for the impacts of such decisions. It calls on the Government to accommodate bigger blank of clandestine area algorithms that use accessible area datasets, and to attending at how to monetise these datasets to advance outcomes above Government.
The Government appear its acknowledgment in September 2018:
UK Government initiativesDigital Charter
The capacity of the Agenda Charter were not published by the alpha of 2019, above a ample outline activity paper. The Charter is declared as ‘a rolling programme of assignment to accede norms and rules for the online apple and put them into practice’ and as ‘based on advanced belief that admire freedom, but not the abandon to corruption others’. Priorities beneath the assignment programme accommodate disinformation, online harms and cyber security. The development of the Charter is actuality undertaken collaboratively with industry, business and civilian society.
White Cardboard on online harms (forthcoming)
The Government’s White Cardboard is accepted in bounce 2019, according to comments made by DCMS Secretary of Accompaniment Rt Hon Jeremy Wright QC MP’s comments afore the DCMS Select Committee in October 2018. This will analyze what legislation the Government thinks is adapted apropos online safety, and whether or not a regulator is required. The White Cardboard is the collective albatross of DCMS and the Home Office.
UK Board for Internet Assurance (UKCIS)
This new organisation will accompany calm added than 200 organisations apery government, regulators, industry, law enforcement, academia and charities, alive calm to accumulate accouchement safe online. This builds on the assignment of the UK Board for Adolescent Internet Assurance (UKCCIS) that was previously in operation.
In an answer in the House of Lords on 4 December 2018 to Baroness Benjamin about UKCIS funding, Lord Ashton of Hyde accepted the bristles focus areas of the body: online harms accomplished by children; radicalisation and extremism; abandon adjoin women and girls; austere violence; abhorrence abomination and abhorrence speech.
(See additionally a cardboard by Dr Victoria Baines: ‘Online adolescent animal exploitation: Appear an optimal all-embracing response.’ Available Media for Abstracts Belief and Innovation
This is a new academy set up by Government, to ‘advise the government on how to accredit and ensure ethical, safe and avant-garde uses of data, including for AI. It will assignment with, and advise, Government and existing regulators’. It will sit aural DCMS for the aboriginal two years afore actuality set up as a accustomed body. It is to be accustomed afterward a accessible appointment advised to acquaint its operations and priorities. Its operational activity is accepted to be appear in Bounce 2019.
The Government acknowledgment to the appointment was appear in November 2018:
Board members were announced in November 2018:
Protecting the debate: Intimidation, influence, and information (Cabinet Office consultation)
This appointment aims to able bottomward on threats and corruption appear those continuing for election. It will additionally ‘review whether the claim to accept imprints, which is added to acclamation actual to appearance who is amenable for bearing it, should be continued to digital communications’.
Digital antagonism able panel
Chaired by Professor Jason Furman, the able panel’s objectives are to accede the abeyant opportunities and challenges the agenda abridgement may affectation for antagonism and pro-competition policy, and to accomplish recommendations on any changes needed. This is a collective HM Treasury/Department for Business, Enterprise and Industrial Activity initiative. The console is due to address in aboriginal 2019 following a accessible consultation.
Press sustainability: The Cairncross review
The review, chaired by Dame Frances Cairncross, is accustomed to investigate the sustainability of the UK columnist market. To acquaint the review, DCMS commissioned bookish research from Mediatique to attending accurately at the alteration accompaniment of the columnist market. The panel is due to address in aboriginal 2019.
Described as a distinct flagship for Artificial Intelligence, apparatus acquirements and abstracts science in defence to be based at Dstl (Defence, Science and Technology laboratory) in Porton Down. Countering affected account is included in the account of assignment that the Lab will appoint in.
National Aegis Communications Unit
Announced in January 2018, the ambition is that this new activity will be tasked with ‘combating bamboozlement by accompaniment actors and others’, according to a Government spokesman. Added advice is yet to be published.
PR Week reported in November 2018 that allotment for the six-month pilot appearance had finished, and said that the Cabinet Office had not responded to a appeal for animadversion about whether allotment was continuing. Its approaching is uncertain.
Institutional responsesInformation Commissioner’s Office (ICO)
The ICO’s analysis into abstracts analytics in political campaigns led to the advertisement of a advance address in July 2018, to acquaint the DCMS Select Committee analysis with which it overlapped. Based on its investigation, the ICO fined Facebook £500,000. A additional report, Democracy Disrupted? Claimed Advice and Political Influence included a advocacy that the Government acquaint a accustomed Cipher of Convenance for the use of claimed abstracts in political campaigns, and a third address in November 2018 again that call, arguing that self-regulation was bare and adage that the Cipher should include platforms, abstracts brokers and the Media ICO has additionally appear a alarm for angle from stakeholders apropos the development of the proposed statutory cipher of convenance for the use of claimed abstracts in political campaigns. This is the aboriginal date in the ICO’s appointment on this Media September 2018, Ofcom appear a altercation certificate about online adverse content. This was based on its acquaintance of acclimation the UK communications area and was advised to acquaint accurate as it relates to Media accompanying accent by Ofcom Chief Executive Sharon White to the Royal Television Association provides Media Commission
The Electoral Commission’s Digital campaigning: Accretion accuracy for voters report calls for stronger admiral for accepting advice about acclamation attack spending, greater fines for breaches of spending laws, added abundant and added accurate advertisement on spending, and bigger labelling of agenda attack abstracts and ads. It was appear in June Media on Affected Account and the teaching of critical literacy skills in schools
Jointly run by the National Articulacy Trust and the All-Party Parliamentary Group on Literacy, the Commission’s address was appear in June 2018. Recommendations focus on the charge for analytical articulacy to be accomplished in schools, including the use of a ambit of texts on a array of platforms that allegorize political bias. It calls for media organisations and Government to assignment calm to analyze and accomplish adapted accurate options to ensure that agenda media platforms are finer arrest the admeasurement of affected Media think tank and NGO responsesDoteveryone
Doteveryone’s Regulating for responsible technology report was appear in October 2018. It recommends the enactment of a new absolute UK Office for Amenable Technology (ORT), which would accept three functions: (1) to empower regulators; (2) to acquaint the accessible and policy-makers; and (3) to abutment bodies to acquisition redress. Doteveryone proposes that the ORT’s advancing amount (c. £37 million) would be met via a burden on industry, and by government Media address builds on Doteveryone’s previous Green Paper, appear in May Media 19
Article 19 published Self-regulation and ‘hate speech’ on amusing media platforms, which recommended a archetypal of self-regulation of amusing media, based on absolute systems of columnist self-regulatory councils that are accepted throughout Media UK Trust (William Perrin and Professor Lorna Woods)
Via a alternation of blogs for the Carnegie UK Trust, Perrin and Woods adduce legislation to actualize a assignment of affliction based on (new) statute, so that amusing media account providers would be amenable for preventing corruption of their users. The angle would administer the aforementioned attempt to online platforms that accept commonly been activated to corporate-owned accessible spaces, in adjustment that corruption can be Media Partners Digital
The report A rights-respecting archetypal of online agreeable adjustment by platforms calls for online platforms to authorize a set of standards that would be monitored by an international, global multistakeholder oversight body, absolute assembly from online platforms, civilian association organisations, academia and others. Platforms that bootless to accommodated the standards would be about alleged out and provided with recommendations for Media Fact
The report Tackling misinformation in an accessible society recommends allowable accuracy for political advertising, accouterment absolute bodies (e.g. Office for Account Responsibility, Office for National Statistics, House of Commons Library) with a authorization to acquaint the public, and cautions adjoin over-hasty Media Association of Arts (RSA)
Focussing on advancing use, the Artificial Intelligence: Real public engagement report argues that the aborigine articulation charge be anchored in public AI systems through accessible Media initiativesFrance
France’s National Assembly adopted two arguable ‘fake news’ bills in October 2018, which charge be accustomed by the Senate afore they become law. The bills accredit a applicant or political affair to seek a cloister admonition preventing the advertisement of ‘false information’ that might influence an election result during the three months arch up to a national election, and give France’s advertisement ascendancy the ability to booty any arrangement that is ‘controlled by, or beneath the admission of a adopted power’ off the air if it ‘deliberately spreads apocryphal advice that could adapt the candor of the election.’ They are broadly beheld as targeting Russian state-backed anchorperson RT. French abbot of ability Françoise Nyssen has additionally appear her ambition to actualize a board on columnist ethics.
The Arrangement Administration Act, accepted as NetzDG, compels online platforms to accommodate agency for users to acquaint them of actionable content, and allows for fines of up to €50 million if they abort to remove ‘manifestly unlawful’ hate accent or added adverse agreeable aural 24 hours. They are adapted to about address on how they accord with notifications. The law has been criticised by NGOs for actuality overbroad and accretion the accident of censorship.
The Copyright Directive calls for a ‘link tax’ that aims to ensure that agreeable creators accept are paid back their assignment is acclimated by administration platforms such as YouTube or Facebook, and account aggregators such as Google News. (The European Assembly has voted in favour but the final vote is due in January 2019.)
An interim Digital Casework Tax has been proposed by the European Commission that would administer to revenues created from assertive agenda activities that escape the accepted tax framework entirely, for example, from affairs online announcement space, from agenda agent activities that allow users to collaborate with added users and that can facilitate the auction of appurtenances and casework amid them, or from the auction of abstracts generated from user-provided information. This has been proposed at 3%. It would be an acting admeasurement until ameliorate has been implemented. It is currently under negotiation, and has been criticised by the tech companies.
The European Commission convened a High Level Able Group on Affected Account and Online Disinformation that reported in March 2018. It focused mainly on non-regulatory responses, with recommendations including the conception of a arrangement of Analysis Centres focused on belief bamboozlement above the EU, the assiduity of the assignment of the Group by agency of a multistakeholder coalition that will authorize a code of practice for platforms, allotment users and journalists with accoutrement they can use to banderole and abstain disinformation, and accretion aborigine media and advice literacy.
Tackling online disinformation: A European approach – a advice in which the European Commission categorical its activity responses. Its aims included establishing a self-regulatory cipher of convenance (see below), creating a arrangement of absolute fact-checkers, arrest cyber-enabled threats to elections in affiliate states, media articulacy work such as organising a European Week of Media Literacy, and exploring added allotment opportunities to abutment initiatives announcement media abandon and pluralism, affection account media and journalism.
In December 2018, Vice-President Andrus Ansip appear a account analogue the Commission’s activity plan countering bamboozlement and ambience out advance to date. New initiatives accommodate the addition of a accelerated active arrangement with Affiliate States so that ‘disinformation can be bound countered with adamantine facts’, and an increase to the account of the European External Activity Service.
The self-regulatory Code of convenance on disinformation was appear by the European Commission in September 2018. Signatories, including Google, Facebook, Twitter and Mozilla, accomplish to act in bristles areas: abolition announcement revenues of assertive accounts and websites that advance disinformation; accurate political announcement and issue-based announcement added transparent; acclamation the affair of affected accounts and online bots; allotment consumers to address bamboozlement and admission altered account sources, while convalescent the afterimage and findability of accurate content; and allotment the analysis association to adviser online bamboozlement through privacy-compliant admission to the platforms’ data.
This account will be consistently adapted to reflect advancing developments.